Summary (with a few additions) of Ken Walters "Trees used for Historical Re-enactor Woodworkers and other Craftspeople, 100-1700AD"
Brit intro? Food/drink Remedies Colour Dyeing Firewood Working Made into Spiritual
          heart sap bark fruit leaf shoots root wood      
Alder ancient paCr; worked green RBr>O; seasoned>Y R tawny Gn Y Pi not best nice to carve/turn broom handles, soles, clogs.Viking: bowls, cups
Alder buckthorn YBr G-BuGn Gunpowder, skewers, peasticks, butcher's dogs
Apple common apples! brY well if dry nice to carve/turn furniture Celts: disaster(execute)if cut down
Apple crab Ice age jellies, jams, wine  fermented "Verjuice": sprains & scalds
Text Box: pa:pale
Text Box: R:Red
Bu: Blue
Hosts mistletoe
Ash common bark: malaria pre-quinine; leaves: purgative/diuretic paCrW, marked rings brY Excellent - burns green wide rings tougher spear shafts; axe, mace & tool handles; child & training swords; oars, hockey sticks, waggon felloes (rims), furniture (steam bent for chairs)  Burning drives bad spirits from room. Sacred to Norse (Yggdrasil: Odin carved 1st man from it)
Ash manna 1700 gum: mild laxative
Beech nuts, edible oil Cr ltBr, prominent rays burns hot nice to carve/turn absorbs shocks: chair legs, mallet heads, chopping blocks, spoons, plane bodies
Birch silver ferment sap with honey cf Sycamore bright flame short lengths ok to carve/turn twigs: besom broom; coppiced poles; peel & dry bark: 'bentwood' boxes (cf Shaker style), canoes & shelters (Canadian); paper (Viking); sap: soap; bark oil: insect repellant, scent; plywood (Scandanavia) Sacred powers of renewal (Celts, Druids, Germanic): ritual sweep spirits from old year, birch insane/criminal to expel evil
Blackthorn Sloe gin,wine,jam Br Y dense, tough, polishes nicely small items: rake teeth, walking sticks, marquetry (recent), Irish shillelagh
Box Cr - Br dense, hard grained, nice to carve/turn, sinks when green
Buckthorn bitter berries berries+bark>"cascara"purgative RBr Y charcoal for centuries walking sticks today
Cedar common 1664 oil in soaps & perfumes R-ish W sharpens easily, no splinters aroma resists insects: chest/wardbrobe liner, pencils
Cedar white 1560s fragrant ltBr
Cherry bird brandy/wine flavour, inedible-bitter tannin bark: tea stomach tonic, plague protector RBr W
Cherry cornelian 16C jellies, jams Persian,Greek, Roman: javelin, spear, arrow shafts
Cherry wild cherries: wild inedible, cultiv'd edible raw or cooked; pulp: distilled; bark gum: cider flavour paBr paler; worked green>O/RBr, distinctive rings turning furniture, mallet heads, tool/knife handles, tobacco pipes
Chestnut horse conkers animal not human feed stalks: tonic; cherries: cough syrup flavour paCrBr brY dries to light weight, no strength or durability turned/carved decorative objects, toys, false limbs, fruit trays/boxes
Chestnut sweet (unrelated) edible nuts (roasted), ground>pollenta (Roman), stuffing cf Oak but less visible rays seasoned: lighter & less strong than oak, shakes when planked, ok when cleaved, holds size housing beams, staves for palings, furniture, coppiced for hop poles or walking sticks
Damson Cherry plum/blackthorn cross. Varieties: plum, greengage jellies, jams, wine RBr paBr Dense, hard, nice to carve/turn furniture
Dogwood can charcoal tough butchers' dogs, goads, pestles, wheel spokes, berries: lamp oil
Elder fruit, flowers: wine, jam, cordial. Flowers flavour vinegar, lemonade, rhubarb; Fruits: champagne, dried in cakes tea: coughs(vit C); bark: purgative; flowers: face lotion YW Bk Bu-Li (hair) dull Gn Bu (flower) hard small items: spoons, toys, combs, peashooters, whistles Grow beside door to ward off witches
Elm English leaves: animal (esp goat) fodder Br irreg. grain saw not cleave furniture, esp. seats, stools, waggon hubs
Elm wych RBr Y-ish turnable, cleavable (straighter grain) furniture, water pipes, boat keels, groynes, chair seats, wheel hubs, coffins; tough inner bark/bast: ropes (cf lime); pollards: peasticks (EAng)
Fig 16C brandy, rarely ripens in Britain fruit: laxative; leaf juice: warts
Foxglove tree 17C Chinese: infusion of fruit & leaves prevented skin/hair aging
Gum sweet (satin wood - America) 1681 wood: no use gum: adhesives, salves, perfumes, incense
Hawthorn pa close grained poles, walking sticks, layered for hedging maypoles, facemask of Green Man
Hazel common cob nuts, edible oil straight coppice sticks walking sticks, thatching spars, timber frame buildings, wattling Water divine with forked twig
Hazel wych 1879 bark, leaf, twig+alcolhol> controls inflammation/bruising/bleeding
Hazel cob round nuts dense, hard, nice to carve, bends for weaving or shaping a frame staves, hurdles, frames for baskets, coracles, etc, heatherings for hedging
Hazel filbert not native longer nuts
Holly W dense, close grained; nice to carve/turn like Box tool handles, inlay work, woodcuts, finely carved/turned items Pagan: symbol of everlasting life and ward against evil, Christian Xmas. Unlucky to cut down
Hornbeam layered for hedging, butcher's blocks, mallets, balls, skittles, spokes, cogs, ramrods
Juniper common pre Medieval ham smoking, gin flavour berries poison antidote incl wild animal bites. Keep away plague, ease dropsy Br coppiced for faggots, firewood (good when seasoned), charcoal bean sticks Medieval burnt branch/leaf against evil. Egyptian embalming oils from leaf
Lilac 1621 Pu
Lime (Linden, Basswood(US)) ancient 2700BC: Lime flower honey flowers: soothing tea PaCrW soft to carve with great deal of detail some musical linstruments, shields, tough inner bark/bast: ropes (cf wych elm)
Maple field nice to carve/turn cups, bowls, spoons
Maple Box elder Late 17C sugary sap CrW small carvings
Maidenhair tree 18C Japan: roasted fruits cure hangovers ltY soft, no strength no usable wood
Mulberry black 1550 bittersweet raw or jam berry Housing silk worms from 17C (white better, but not Brit)
Medlar Saxon known fruit edible when over-ripe short lengths only As most fruit woods
Oak English ancient pigs: acorns galls: burn ointment; Agaric fungus: strips stop bleeding dkBr Cr, lt ray flecks, rings bark: wool, linen, tanning leather, ink (with iron salts), Br with alum, Pu,Bk,Y with metal salts; galls: ink good if dry, can charcoal preserves well building houses/bridges/seige engines, boats, barrels, wedges, furniture, panelling, swill baskets, fencing, waggons, some tool/knife handles Sacred to Druids, esp. mistletoe
Oak holm (holly/live) 14C good charcoal
Oak sessile bark: tanning leather hi quality charcoal
Pear ancient but not native fruit raw or stewed, fermented>perry(Norman) paPiBr brY nice to carve/turn veneers, musical instruments Hosts mistletoe
Privet oval leafed (OE: prim, primprint) ancient 1597: gargle to combat mouth/ throat swellings, abscesses & ulcers Bu/Bk Y
Plane London ancient grain delicate tracery "Lacewood" dense & fine-grained; nice to carve/turn
Poplar common v light when seasoned matches, pallets
Poplar lombardy 18C no commercial use
Rowan (Mountain ash) berries: red jelly drink preventing scurvy (vitC) YGr Bk-ish strong, flexible longbows (Yew stronger), small carved items, tool handles Planted or staff added to thatch or child's cot to ward off witchcraft
Service tree wild (rare) pre-Roman berries: binding against colic & dysentery can charcoal
Spindle bark&fruit: emetic; leaf/seed against lice W-ish berries: R from Pi, Y from O, Gn if boil with alum today:hi-grade charcoal dense, tough spindles, skewers, clothing pegs
Sumac stag's horn 1629 root extract: fever O light, soft toys, hollowed stems: tabacco pipes & tapping Maple sap (N.America)
Sycamore ("Gt Maple" since Romans) inter-glacial evidence v.paCrW, cf birch, ash; hardly grained shredded dried bark for tinder nice to turn & with hand tools, no tase or smell, natural bactericide rare Fiddleback ripple for violin backs & veneers; kitchen/dairyware
Tamarisk 1582 rheumatism, bruising; medicines (MidEast) branches would be suitable for broom
Tulip tree 1656 bark: bitter quinine properties whitewood furniture, 20 people canoe (N.Am)
Walnut black 1709 veneers, gunstocks
Walnut common Romans?(AngSax=foreign nut) nuts, nut oil nut: mental disorders (cf brain signature) Br (no mordant), suntan, hair, floor stain furniture, nut oil: soap (19C); leaves: slug killer (19C)
Wayfaring tree (Hoarwithy) berries: Bk ink pliant twigs: string round faggots, stock driving switches; hardwood: mouthpieces for tobacco pipes
Whitebeam AngSax named over-ripe berries: jelly with venison tough, hardwearing cogs Boundary marker (AngSax)
Willow common bark: Aspirin - sedative PuR fine charcoal v light when seasoned cleft for gate hurdles, hay rakes, cricket bats, coppiced for basketwork
Willow goat (pussy) Br YW bark: PiBr-Pu, tanning leather clothes pegs, rake teeth, knife/hatchet handles
Willow osier GnBr buff tannin coppiced for withies: basket work, chair seats
Yew bark/leaves/berries: poisonous dpRBr pale wavy grain hard to split, good for steam bending bows for Windsor chairs, longbows Holy long before Christians